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F1 power Unit Explained

F1 Engines, Explained! Hywel Thomas, F1 Power Unit Director for Mercedes-AMG HPP, talks us through how an F1 engine runs, the difference between horsepower and torque, what derates are and much more in our latest Simple Science episode! A deep look at the complicated hybrid power unit inside 2016 F1 cars and how each of the six component parts work to give the cars incredible power from such..

Renault F1 to introduce upgraded V6 - Racecar Engineering

How Do F1 Power Units Actually Work? F1 Engines, Explained

Honda engine problems explained after McLaren's troubledPower Unit MGU-K

Formula 1's hybrid engines explained How so much power is eked out of 1.6 And how e-power comes to the rescue. F1, they say is the pinnacle of motorsport, using the most advanced and expensive. POWER UNIT. What is it: Time was when Formula 1 cars just had engines. No longer! Now they have 'power units', which comprise the following six elements: the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), the Turbo Charger (TC), the Motor Generator Unit - Heat (MGU-H), the Motor Generator Unit - Kinetic (MGU-K), the Energy Store (ES) and the Control. The engine in Formula 1 cars is a turbocharged direct fuel injection unit that develops in the 700 horsepower range. ERS adds an extra 160 horsepower, making the engine just as potent as the..

Operation. Formula One currently uses 1.6 litre four-stroke turbocharged 90 degree V6 double-overhead camshaft (DOHC) reciprocating engines. They were introduced in 2014 and have been developed over the past seasons. The power a Formula One engine produces is generated by operating at a very high rotational speed, up to 12,000 revolutions per minute (rpm) It's the beating heart that drives our Formula 1 car - here's everything you need to know about the modern Mercedes F1 Power Unit! Don't forget to subscrib.. The next step in our technical journey! 2017 marks the beginning of a new technical era in Formula One. How will the power units be affected? Watch to find o.. And there's a tantalizing one about to re-enter the F1 vernacular: 1,000bhp. Not since the heady days of the turbo-charged 1980s have power figures of quite this level been produced by F1 engines - not even by the highly developed 3-liter V10s that were last used in 2005. These peaked at around 950bhp The Honda F1 Power Unit The change in terms from engine to power unit signifies a shift in thinking, from developing engines for pure horsepower to the pursuit of energy-efficient power units, leading to the highest level of energy-efficiency through environmental technologies

F1 Engine Specs 2020: Formula 1 engines form the heart of the cars, and we take a look at the power the current F1 cars carry. The performance of a Formula 1 car is measured in terms of power, which is measured in watts. Watt is simply the rate of energy transferred in a unit of time The internal combustion engine will produce power through consumption of traditional carbon-based fuel, while electrical energy will be harvested from exhaust and braking by two motor generator units. The two systems (MGU-H & MGU-K) will work in harmony, with teams and drivers balancing the use of the two types of energy throughout the race

The amount of used F1 power unit elements that are allowed to each car during the season is limited. During the 2020 season teams are allowed to use 3 ICE, 3 TC, 3 MGU-H, 3 MGU-K, 2 ES and 2 CE units per car without penalty Hybrid technology uses an electric motor to assist the petrol engine. In other words, F1 cars are now powered by Power Units of small displacement, but capable to producing large quantities of.. The Ferrari power unit controversy has shot to the top of headline but it can be hard to keep things straight. Get an in-depth timeline here - skip to 10:15. The powertrain in Formula 1. In order to get the best understanding of modern Formula One racing engines, you should at least take a quick look back into the year 2008 when teams unanimously made the decision to have a relatively old-fashioned powertrain (2.4L - V8 engine) replaces it with a modern, electrically supported 1.6L - V6 engine F1's 2021 engine plans at a glance. The 2021 power unit to be a 1.6 Litre, V6 Turbo Hybrid. 3000rpm higher engine running speed range to improve the sound. Prescriptive internal design parameters.

2014 F1 explained: The power unit - Racecar Engineering

Mercedes has explained the changes it has made to its Formula 1 engine to address reliability concerns it had ahead of the new season Mercedes explains F1 power unit changes to address. 2014 F1 explained: The power unit. Page 4: The strategy. How teams will deploy the new power units on track, its not just a case of rev it up and go! A standard lap. nder acceleration (eg. down the pit straight) the internal combustion engine will be using its reserve of fuel. The turbocharger will be rotating at maximum speed (100,000rpm) F1 Losing Major Power Unit Manufacturer After 2021 Renault was Red Bull's engine supplier from 2007 through 2018. All four of Red Bull's championships (2010-13) came with Renault power

The Hybrid Power Unit in F1 explained (2016) - YouTub

  1. Power units remain the same as now, but exhaust systems have been added to the list of PU components that are limited in number per season, with each driver able to use six before penalty. Cars will 25kg heavier as a result of the new tyres, changes in chassis and PU materials to save costs, further safety measures and the introduction of.
  2. Components of Power Units. These F1 hybrid power units are comprised of 6 major parts, those are - 1. ICE (Internal Combustion Engine) 2. TC (Turbocharger) 3. MGU-K (Motor generation unit - Kinetic) 4. MGU-H (Motor generation unit - Heat) 5. ES (Energy store) 6. CE (Control electronics or ECU
  3. 2014 F1 explained: The power unit. All of the cars in F1 will be fitted with 1.6 litre turbocharged engines in 2014, Ferrari, Mercedes and Renault will between them supply all of the teams until 2015 when Honda arrives to supply McLaren, and depending on which team is awarded the empty slot on the grid in 2015 potentially Ford as well
  4. Formula 1 Videos. It's the beating heart that drives our Formula 1 car - here's everything you need to know about the modern Mercedes F1 Power Unit
  5. Everything You Need to Know About the Mercedes Power Unit | F1 Explained. It's the beating heart that drives our Formula 1 car - here's everything you need to know about the modern Mercedes F1 Power Unit! Related Looking to Turn Our Learnings Into Performance - Tot

Live. •. How do Formula 1 power units actually work? In this latest video produced by reigning World Champions Mercedes, Hywel Thomas, Power Unit Director for Mercedes-AMG HPP, talks through how an F1 engine runs, the difference between horsepower and torque, what derates are and much more. Tags: F1 Mercedes Video: Mercedes F1 Power Unit explained. Posted by AR1 staff February 25, 2021. It's the beating heart that drives Mercedes' Formula 1 car - here's everything you need to know about the modern Mercedes F1 Power Unit! Post navigation. Lost Ferrari F1 team makes more organization changes 2014 Formula 1 Rules vs. 2013 Formula 1 Rules. In 2014 engine changed name in power unit and they are be 1.6 litre V6 boosted with a turbocharger and greater energy recovery systems. They can boost around 600HP (without ERS, prediction for the beginning of the season) at up to 15,000rpm. The power unit is fuel flow restricted Oil Burning Explained. Since 2014 the regulations that govern Formula 1 engines - or power units (PUs), to use their more formal description - have been framed to maximize efficiency. They dictate that the PUs must be based around a 1.6-litre V6 turbocharged petrol engine coupled to two electric motors. One of these converts heat, that. After our initial look at the internal combustion engine and now the electronic components additions to the ICE the picture of a complete Formula One power unit is coming together. Years of technical development has taken the power unit from a brute force piece of engineering to a refined technical masterclass

The F1 cars engines are no longer treated in isolation after all the significant downsizing of engine capacity that happened in the last 2 decades. These are now called Power Units which is a combination of the internal combustion engine and ERS T.. A guide to explain Power Unit wear... It would be good if you could add how parts effect performance individually, particularly the effects past 50% wear (e.g. how a gearbox past 50% has a chance of losing gears, ES loses maximum charge based on % wear), as well as what scenarios during weekend sessions directly affect % wear (e.g. leaving ERS on 0 or using ERS assist [which tends to. How Formula One's Amazing New Hybrid Turbo Engine Works. A 1.6-liter V6 turbo revving at 15,000 rpm with unlimited boost that turns small drops of fuel into 600 horsepower aided by an electrical. Power unit usage rules. Formula 1 has strict rules about how many power unit components can be used over the course of a season. Long gone are the days of teams fitting an engine specifically for qualifying, and then throwing it away to fit a new one with lower performance figures to get through the race

2014 F1 explained: The power unit - Racecar Engineerin

  1. Also included in the system is a KERS control unit, separate from the Microsoft supplied FIA engine control unit, with a similar operating temperature to the motor. This is mounted low in the side.
  2. The amount of used F1 power unit elements that drivers are allowed during the season is limited. During the 2019 F1 season drivers are allowed to use only 3 ICE, 3 TC, 3 MGU-H, 2 MGU-K, 2 ES and 2 CE units. Drivers that use more power unit elements will receive grid penalties in the next F1 race. The used power unit elements in the sheet below.
  3. der of the legal disclaimer, the website exists for entertainment purposes only and does not provide sports betting tips. Betting is discouraged
  4. F1 Engine. With the sunset of the 2.4 litre V8 engine era in 2013, in 2014 the world of Formula One and its fans. woke up to the roar, or I would say 'hiss' of the tech driven hybrid V6 turbo.
  5. The 2021 Ferrari Power Unit Explained. March 17, 2021; Power Unit Area, breaks down Ferrari's 2021 power unit, and the challenges the team faced in 2020. 2021 enrico gualtieri f1 formula 1 formula one power unit scuderia ferrari. Previous Post Sebastian Vettel on the 2021 Season March 17, 2021. Next Post Alice Ronchi designs new Imola GP.
  6. Pictured above: Mercedes-AMG F1's 2016 power unit. Oil burns when it's introduced into a gas-powered engine's combustion chamber, which helps generate more power at the expense of, well, oil

Mercedes-AMG Petronas Formula One Team posted a video to playlist F1 Explained. February 25 at 9:01 AM ·. It's the beating ️ that drives our F1 car - here's everything you need to know about the modern Mercedes Power Unit! . 5.4K5.4K. 88 Comments 425 Shares The 2014 Power Unit has been designed with integrated hybrid systems from the very beginning. Interesting. F1 loves jargon, so ICE and ERS sound just perfect. What do they mean? The ICE is the traditional engine in the Power Unit package. 1.6 litre capacity, turbocharged, and with direct fuel injection at a pressure of up to 100 bar Mercedes has explained the different power unit modes it uses in Formula 1 and how the new technical directive will impact the team at the Italian Grand Prix. From this weekend's race at Monza, all teams will have to run the same power unit mode from the start of qualifying until the end of the race because the area falls under parc ferme. The Japanese manufacturer's 2021 power unit has hugely impressed people throughout the Formula 1 paddock in pre-season testing and the first race weekend of the year, with AlphaTauri team boss. appendix 6: supply of power units for the 2021-2025 championship seasons xx APPENDIX 6A: POWER UNIT SUPPLY PERIMETER xx 2022 Formula 1 Sporting Regulations 4 27 May 202

Honda has explained the key changes it has made to its Formula 1 engine for this season, after revealing it has hit its performance targets over the winter. Having fast-tracked a power unit. Mercedes has confirmed that their 2021 power unit features new innovations which will be raced for the first time. The engine department has always been an area where Mercedes are regarded. Formula 1 currently operates a 1.6-litre turbo-hybrid power unit, a ruleset introduced in 2014 and set to continue, at this stage, until the end of the 2024 season. Join the discussion below in.

How a Formula 1 Internal Combustion Engine Works F1

This month, Mercedes opened the doors to its Brixworth facility in rural England to tell the story of how its world-beating Formula 1 hybrid power unit is designed and built, and I was there for a. The 2022 FIA Formula One World Championship is a planned motor racing championship for Formula One cars which will be the 73rd running of the Formula One World Championship. It is recognised by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA), the governing body of international motorsport, as the highest class of competition for open-wheel racing cars

Racing impact: 2014 Formula 1 Regulation Changes Explained. 1. ALL CHANGE ON THE ENGINE FRONT. The headline change for Formula 1 in 2014 is the introduction of a new engine - or, more specifically, 'power-unit'. The sport is changing from a 2.4-litre, naturally aspirated 750bhp V8 - a unit that was introduced to Formula 1 at the start. F1 transmission system explained. Formula 1 has seen several changes in the rules and the teams have come up with some brilliant innovative ideas to cope up with the new regulations. There. Honda have explained some of the changes they made for 2021 in order to boost their performance and reliability, which has transformed the Japanese manufacturer from back-of-the-grid minnows a few years ago into one of the benchmark Formula 1 engines. Honda's switch from supplying McLaren to the Toro Rosso team in 2018 showed immediate promise.

Formula 1 and the FIA have outlined the specifics of the proposed new breed of engines to be introduced in 2025. After the F1 Commission voted unanimously to freeze the current power units from next season, the direction of the sport can now be firmly assessed ahead of the all-important new regulations mid-decade We can't go back to a Flintstones engine- Toto Wolff claims Formula 1 can't go back to the loud roaring engines amidst new aspirations. In Formula 1, there is a huge romanticism around the loud engines, which were prevalent in the sport before the turbo-hybrid era. Even Toto Wolff has shown his fondness for the loud V12 engines By Mat Coch. Saturday 6th February, 2021 - 8:56am. F1 boss says power unit freeze is important for all manufacturers. Red Bull's push to freeze power unit development in Formula 1 is important.

Technical directives surrounding power unit usage were common last season and had a clear impact on Ferrari's straight-line speed, with team principal Mattia Binotto confirming power unit performance was lost as a result. More Formula 1! Red Bull considering Hamilton penalty review after $1.8m cras Ever since the advent of the hybrid in F1, the transition from a 2.4-litre V8 engine to a 1.6-litre V6 power unit with a battery attached and an engine recovery system (ERS) to make sure the cars. Mercedes' 2021 Formula 1 power unit features some completely new innovations in the quest for greater performance and reliability. The reigning world champion squad unveiled its 2021. Safety first for the F1 2022 Car. Formula 1 has focused mainly on increasing the safety of the drivers wherein the new car is now designed in such a way that, in the event of a crash, the power unit will separate from the chassis in a safe manner without exposing the fuel tank like in the incident of Roman Grosjean at 2020 Bahrain Grand Prix

Indy Car vs Formula 1 : The Difference Explained (Answer) The power units for Formula 1 race cars are all made of internal combustion engines, a turbo charger, and energy recovery systems (ERS). There are four types of ERS and each driver is allowed to have up to 4 of each. If they exceed this limit, they are penalized F1. Lewis Larkam. 17 Mar 2021. 0. Honda's upgraded F1 power unit for the 2021 season will be boosted by a new fuel developed to increase reliability and performance. A new fuel developed by Red. F1 Power Units. Since the dawn of the hybrid era in 2014, the current turbo-hybrid formula wasn't going to change much even in 2022 due to its functionality. Reducing the cost, the power units will be allowed to be a bit heavier and now should be made of commercially available materials, which means no exclusive material is allowed Horner clarifies Red Bull F1 engine plans. Sam Hall. Wednesday 7 July 2021 16:00. Red Bull team principal Christian Horner has confirmed 2022 will be a transitional year for its powertrains department with its engines to continue being built in Japan. After Honda announced the 2021 season would be its last in F1, Red Bull struck a deal. F1's four manufacturers last year agreed to a performance index to measure the engines of Mercedes, Ferrari, Renault and Honda. The agreement stated that, by the third race of 2017, three of the.

  1. F1 car engine f1 short for 'formula 1' is the top of all automotive motorsport championships, so there is an understandable level of popularity around it f1 car. There are six primary components in a modern f1 power unit, which comprises the engine. Source: i2.wp.com. How do f1 engines work
  2. F1's big and wide-ranging package of cost-cutting measures - headlined by a tighter budget cap - have been approved to make the sport more sustainable and competitive into the future
  3. W11 Explained : Mercedes F1 Highlight Key Changes in 2020 Car. Published 02/24/2020, 12:30 AM EST. By Abhishek Bharadwaj. At a time when teams are scurrying to hide their cars, Mercedes have released a video on the W11. The team posted a semi-detailed video on its YouTube channel explaining or rather touching on the core improvements of the car

F1 ERS explained. Just as crucial to propulsion, and fully integrated with the turbocharged 1.6-litre V6, is an Energy Recovery System (ERS) that dramatically increases the unit's overall efficiency by harvesting (and redeploying) heat energy from the exhaust and brakes that would usually go to waste. The internal combustion engine itself is. Ferrari's current lack of performance is rooted in an investigation into its power unit over the winter that resulted in a series of rule clarifications from F1's governing body, the FIA, that.

How F1 Power Units work - Part 1 (basic explanation

  1. ation of Mercedes has made the sport very boring for the Formula 1 fans. According to him, the lack of competitiveness has had a critical effect on the boredom of the F1 community. [Mercedes] built an extremely high performance, fuel-efficient, durable engine that no other team has come close to
  2. F1 2017 explained: Power unit changes. Following up on their videos on regulation changes, Mercedes have now highlighted the impact of these changes on the power unit. In essence, it comes down to coping with the difficulty of having more full throttle each and every lap, while having to work against the increased drag that comes with the.
  3. 5. News /r/all. U-Masks, the official facemasks for F1, has been withdrawn from sale from the Italian authorities. It's been found that the masks are filtering less than a cheap surgery mask, and that the company used an unauthorized laboratory to conduct their filtration tests
  4. g season, here's.
  5. The engine used in a Formula 1 car is a V6 turbo hybrid engine. According to regulations (2020) a maximum of 1,6 engine displacement is allowed. The combustion engine puts most of the power on the road with around 800 hp. In the game, the engine wears from driving of course. But if you always drive the engine up to the highest speed range, you.
  6. MGU-K - It stands for Motor Generator Unit - Kinetic. The kinetic energy through braking is lost as it becomes thermal energy through brakes units. With a Hybrid system, this lost energy is recovered by the unit as electrical energy and stored in.
Honda Hopes for One Last Hurrah In F1 Via Red Bull & Alpha

Hybrid F1 power: how does it work? CAR Magazin

F1 2014: All aboard the 'power train' - new rules explained. By Andrew Benson Chief F1 writer. Last updated on 24 January 2014 24 January 2014. Formula 1 race strategy explained Note: If you checked out our F1 2020 MyTeam beginner's guide, you might remember that you get to select a power unit supplier at the start of each season. If you have the money to pick Mercedes. F1 cars are all very different. While they may feature the same power units, gearboxes, brakes and tyres, there is still a considerable amount of scope for producing a unique car with many. At the moment the 10 F1 teams are supplied by four different power unit manufacturers: Mercedes, Honda, Renault, and Ferrari - although Honda is leaving at the end of the 2021 season, with Red.

F1 slang explained: A beginner's guide Formula 1

The steering wheel acts as the central controlling unit for the entire system, with easy access for the driver. Mercedes-AMG F1 Twitter According to Mercedes , one driver will go through three to. renault F1 is the first of three formula one engine suppliers to present their 760 horsepower 1.6 liter V6 hybrid 'energy f1-2014 power unit' to the world Here's an introduction to our range of hydraulic power units and examples of how they can be used in factories and out in the field: Standard Hydraulic Power units The most common requirements are satisfied by these workhorse power units. They offer AC motors up to 30kW and can produce flows up to 100 litres per minute Mercedes-AMG's New E-Performance Platform Uses F1 Tech So Anyone Can Get the Most Out of It You'll probably never be Lewis Hamilton, but that doesn't have to stop you from feeling like it on a B.

Renault power unit technology. Renault. Formula 1 is no longer about brute horsepower and the smell of gasoline. Since its '80s and '90s heydays, F1 has transformed into a greener, safer and more. This anecdote sprang to mind on Friday evening when the FIA released a statement which rocked the F1 paddock: The FIA announces that, after thorough technical investigations, it has concluded its analysis of the operation of the Scuderia Ferrari Formula 1 power unit and reached a settlement with the team. The specifics of the agreement will.

In Formula 1, it almost doesn't matter how good your chassis is if your power unit underperforms. Red Bull discovered this the hard way through the middle of the last decade and was only. Mercedes are no strangers to putting F1 tech to use in their road cars, This will rapidly increase the power of the car and gives the rider humungous pleasure. The MGU-K [ Motor Generator Unit - Kinetic ] The Motor Generator Unit - Kinetic (usually abbreviated as MGU-K) is a component of a hybrid-electric power unit Formula E cars explained so Formula E will never go for power and weight that F1 runs to, given its city-centre format. the motor is often called a Motor Generator Unit or MGU for short The key objectives for the 2025 power unit are environmental sustainability and social and automotive relevance, fully sustainable fuel, creating a powerful and emotive power unit, significant cost reduction and working on the attractiveness to new power unit manufacturers. New F1 CEO Stefano Domenicali told Sky Sports F1 last month.

Formula 1 Energy Recovery System Explained - autoevolutio

Three major things that motorsport enthusiasts resent about Formula 1 in 2014 - the rather unbecoming nose design, the dampened sound from the engine and the complicated electronic power units Force India, Williams and McLaren all have the same Mercedes power unit, and all have improved significantly relative to last season. However, they had access to the power units much later than. The best engine in F1 came from Motorsport Valley. Designed in response to changes in engine rules, the Mercedes Hybrid PU106A is the fruit of a concentrated period of research, development and. Shortly after our interview it emerges that a power unit summit will be held during the Austrian Grand Prix, attended by Ola Källenius (Mercedes), John Elkann (Ferrari), Luca de Meo (Renault), the latest member of F1's engine club, Red Bull owner Dietrich Mateschitz, plus, crucially, Oliver Blume (Porsche) and Marcus Duesmann (Audi), FIA. F1 Steering Wheel Explained--Here's How Every Button Works Wilbert Tan Mar 21, 2019 . The F1 steering wheel is a modern marvel of design. You could probably drop it on the floor in a contemporary art exhibit and it wouldn't look out of place among the displays. Multi-Function Switch (power unit)—this white knob, along with two other white.

Formula One engines - Wikipedi

Everything You Need to Know About the Mercedes Power Unit

2014 Formula 1 Rules and Regulations Explained. Home > News the new hybrid power units - as the teams call them now - will be less powerful than last year's V8s, with the total output. On a more serious note, while trying to improve the efficiency of its e:HEV passenger car hybrid system, the Japanese carmaker actually looked at its F1 Hybrid Power Unit program for inspiration

F1 2017 Explained: Power Unit #SimpliF1ed - YouTub

Red Bull deserves credit for improving its chassis a lot rather than people pointing at non-existent Honda power unit gains, says Honda's Formula 1 The Race flipped into The Rac The ERS is charge from the battery of a modern Formula 1® car's power unit and can be used to boost the power unit's performance. In F1 2019, there are 6 modes: None- Quickly recharges battery, however you receive no extra power. Low- Uses a small amount of battery, but we also recharge. Medium- Standard Mode Traction circle is a way of teaching people the basics of tire grip, the essential limiting factor in performance driving. In the traction circle, you can be either turning left, turning right, accelerating, braking, or a combination of this. The important thing the traction circle illustrates is that you can combine turning and speeding up or. The new power unit is a V90° architecture, with a 3-litre, 6-cylinder twin-turbo, and features a dry sump (a classic solution on super sportscars). It delivers 630CV at 7500rpm and 730 Nm of torque from 3000rpm with a specific power output of 210CV/litre. The compression ratio is 11:1, the stroke is 82 mm and the bore 88 mm

How are F1 engines so powerful? - Motorsport Technolog

Ferrari F1 steering wheel explained (+ Italian video). Ferrari steering wheel explained. Formula 1 cars are incredibly high-tech machines. To get the best from them, drivers constantly tweak and tailor a multitude of settings during a race to keep the car operating at peak performance. The Manettino to its left adjusts the hybrid power unit. Key Changes for 2021 F1 Engines Explained... Whole Improvements It is difficult to be specific about which parts have seen the most work, but in order to improve power and reliability, we have made modifications to the ICE, turbine, and ERS, Tanabe said. This is our third year with Scuderia AlphaTauri and in order to improve as a whole, we have also improved the installation and packaging. standard.co.uk - ormula 1 is coming home this weekend with the British Grand Prix, and with it brings a new format: the F1 sprint. In one of the biggest changes to the F1 Sprint race explained: Everything you need to know about new format - Flipboar

Video, 2006 Brazilian GP: Michael Schumacher onboard

The Honda 2015 F1 Power Unit explained - Car Engineer

Formula One has taken the covers off its 2022 next-gen race car at Silverstone. From the 2022 season, the new technical regulations will see dramatic changes being made to F1 cars. Here's what. F1 2021 season guide: drivers, teams, calendar, rules explained. The new F1 season is nearly upon us, with 2021 set to be defined by new drivers, teams, regulations and a bumper calendar. If F1. F1 is the pinnacle of motorsport - it has the word motor in it - and the spotlight will be on the motor unit more particularly in the early days of this rules cycle

F1 Engine Specs 2020 : How powerful are Formula 1 engines

2021 F1 track guide. Follow us on 22 nd May 2021 8:30 am. Ex-F1 racer Karun Chandhok breaks down the 2021 F1 calendar, explaining each circuit's characteristics, key overtaking spots and more